Are the intellectual discoveries and creations which blaze new trails and break natural barriers the results of plans carried out by teams of highly-qualified people, or more the work of individual geniuses? Could a team of individual geniuses, working simultaneously on a team, produce results superior to that which each would obtain if they worked separately? No. All intellectual output is the product of a sophisticated biological machine weighing a little over one kilogram: the neocortex. This machine contains the most complex organization of material known to date. It is the result of billions of years of natural evolution. Just like Nature itself, it features an internal, hierarchically-organized structure. This is why it is the best tool to untangle its secrets. Because Nature does not evolve in a lineal way, it has prepared the brain to obtain invariant representations and make predictions which allow it to carry out non-lineal reasoning. All the areas of the neocortex use the same general algorithm, but each genius, like each person, uses his own heuristics. These heuristics define his personality.
What is a white collar criminal? Everyone knows they’re out there…but they’re subtle, powerful and very difficult to identify. They don’t steal your wallet. Your money never leaves it, but it loses its value. They rob you of its value. Those who have direct access to the mechanisms of currency production and distribution appropriate that lost value. These falsifiers mix recently-created money with that which already exists. This process is irreversible. Despite their divergent origins, once in circulation, the two are indistinguishable. This transfer of wealth gives rise to an inflation of ignorance, which is spawned in a way that is gradual, continuous, silent and stealthy. In this way the causes and their effect are separated in time and space, making it extremely difficult to follow them. Creators’ projects must overcome natural barriers. But this is not enough: a parasitic class preys upon the fruits of their efforts, with wantonness and impunity.
What is more valuable? What has greater potential to generate wealth? A million dollars in the hands of a person who won it at a game of chance…or in those of a worker or entrepreneur who obtained it through his creative efforts? In order to carry out any analysis of wealth in a society, one must consider the tandem money+owner as an inseparable whole.
This system’s multiplying effect of wealth does not depend only on the quantity of the former. Rather, it depends mainly on the integral nature of the combination. This quality is a function of the origin of the money and the characteristics of its owner. In fact, under certain circumstances an increase in the quantity of money in circulation can diminish the system’s global quality, resulting in a reduction of wealth in the mid term. This effect always comes about when money has no identifiable owner.
In evolutionary biology, a preadaptation is a solution to a problem which does not yet exist. This solution is an exaptation if, in addition, it resolves a current problem, or a spandrel if it is a mere offshoot of another solution to another current problem. This is how Nature works, on occasions managing to change the world by inventing flight…or Steve Jobs.
Neither “gravity” nor “air” are to blame for aviation accidents. They were there before airplanes were invented. Likewise, neither “greed” not “the market” cause financial crises. They also predated any economic system. And yet, the leading proponents of these systems, politicians and bankers, use them as a decoy to keep from owning up to their own responsibilities. That’s how they can justify the never-ending creation of new regulations and agencies that, always under their control, allow them to perpetuate their privileges. These two dominant species maintain their supremacy in the Social Jurassic Park by sharing their powerful weapons. How do they do it?
What does “individual social” justice consist of? Of each individual’s capacity, over the course of his life, to rise and fall, in terms of his prosperity, depending upon his merits and his mistakes. This phenomenon is independent of global growth. How can one evaluate a country’s level of “individual social” justice? By analyzing the trends among a representative sampling of individuals over a long enough period of time. Evaluating the average social mobility among the sample set of individuals during this period.
What are the odds that the universe appeared by chance? It is less conceivable building a functioning engine with a bunch of random, odd parts from a series of different engines. Just as in this case, in which certain very exact conditions have to coincide so that all the pieces fit together, there exist six adimensional constants which define our universe. If their characteristics had been just slightly different from what they are, life, intelligence and consciousness would have been impossible. These characteristics, thus, are synchronized with great precision to make the universe, as we know it, possible. Is God the explanation?
The evolution of complex systems has its origins in two facts: their natural tendency towards self organization, and the natural selection occurring in its surroundings. These two phenomena are ultimately responsible for the world’s evolution, the appearance of life, and intelligence. The natural formula for human progress is, therefore, the promotion of connections between free individuals who interact following simple rules. In this case, the entrepreneur is the carbon in the chemistry of prosperity. The catalyst in well-being reactions
On the road of life we find many forks along the way. All the decisions we make in different areas of life are impacted by different behavioral patterns. Are there many of them? No. Just two: those who believe that it is right to do what is pleasing, and those who believe that it is pleasing to do what is right. These driving forces shape the life that we will contemplate in our old age.
Intelligence is an emergent phenomenon through which we find the solutions to address each problem arising before us. It is a product of natural selection and the consequence of the tendency, also natural, of complex systems to organize themselves. Through this mechanism intelligent systems interpret reality and react according to their interests. How does it work? Through two independent and successive processes: