BIRDS, SNAILS… AND STEVE JOBS

In evolutionary biology, a preadaptation is a solution to a problem which does not yet exist. This solution is an exaptation if, in addition, it resolves a current problem, or a spandrel if it is a mere offshoot of another solution to another current problem.  This is how Nature works, on occasions managing to change the world by inventing flight…or Steve Jobs.

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